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Moedersterfteratio = (rechtstreekse MO's + onrechtstreekse MO's + onbepaalde MO’s) / Levendgeborenen * 100000, over 5 jaar. However, despite the fact that fetal cells in the lung are likely just a byproduct of circulatory physiology, the presence of fetal cells in the lung does show an association with cancer: one study reported significantly more fetal cells in the lung and thymus tissue compared to the bone marrow and high levels of male DNA in the diseased lung compared to healthy bone marrow from the same individual 92. The objective of this study was to estimate the effectiveness of maternal pertussis vaccination in protecting infants against laboratory-confirmed pertussis infection. Expected infant seropositivity rates reached 80% vs 55% following second versus third trimester immunization (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 3. For the first 9 months of 2013 compared with the same period in 2012, the greatest proportionate fall in confirmed cases (328 cases in 2012 vs 72 cases in 2013, −78%, 95% CI −72 to −83) and in hospitalisation admissions (440 admissions in 2012 vs 140 admissions in 2013, −68%, −61 to −74) occurred in infants younger than 3 months, although the incidence remained highest in this age group.

This predicts that fetal cells should be found at the sites of wounds and that their presence should be associated with better outcomes for maternal health. It is also possible that fetal microchimerism, through its long co‐evolutionary history with the maternal body (Table 1), may now play a role in normal breast physiology.The present framework suggests that one contributor to autoimmune disease may be the maternal immune response to the presence and action of fetal cells that manipulate maternal tissues.

Tolerance to the fetus may help explain why some autoimmune disease symptoms are lessened during pregnancy in some women.Given the recent increases in the rate of pertussis infection and morbidity and mortality in neonates, these early data provide initial evidence for evaluating the safety of the vaccine in pregnancy for health professionals and the public and can help to inform vaccination policy making. Also, consistent with the hypothesis that fetal cells contribute to ongoing maternal somatic maintenance, fetal cells have been identified in many healthy tissues in human mothers 10, 43, 44, 45 and rodent mothers 41, 42, 46, 47. Offspring interests often favor higher levels of resource transmission than what is optimal for maternal fitness, likely leading to selection on fetal microchimeric cell phenotypes to manipulate maternal tissues to increase the level of resource transfer to offspring. Women are at a higher risk than men for developing autoimmune diseases 96 and the risk of autoimmune disease in parous women is significantly higher after the first year postpartum 97.

This predicts that the presence of fetal cells in the breast should be associated with higher levels of milk production or enhanced quality of mother's milk and could be associated with negative health outcomes for the mother in some cases 52. These finding suggest that fetal cells might have important effects on brain function, though the underlying mechanisms are not yet understood. In de differentiaaldiagnose bij Prader-Willi-syndroom', Nederlands Tijdschrift voor Geneeskunde, vol. Op deze manier zijn zuigelingen de eerste levensmaanden beschermd tegen (een ernstig verloop van) kinkhoest.Typical pertussis with paroxysmal cough > or = 21 days was present in 29/35 (83%) unvaccinated B pertussis cases, in contrast to 33/81 (41%) vaccinated B pertussis cases. Together these findings suggest that fetal microchimeric cells may play a role in breast physiology and milk supply, but the effects on maternal health are not yet clear.

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